Elgers (1980) proposed accounting-based beta forecasting. Accounting-based beta forecasts rely upon the relationship of accounting information such...

Project betas can be estimated based on accounting beta. Accounting measures of return, such as EBIT/Total Assets, can be regressed against a...

Lee, Newbold, Chu (1986) proposed compositebased beta forecasting method. The compositebased beta forecasting is the weighted average of the...

Covariance of a national economy's rate of return and the rate of return the world economy divided by the variance of the world economy.